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BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage after rectal resection is a major complication which increases the rates of morbidity and mortality. A small number of patients with generalised peritonitis need radical surgical treatments. Stable patients with local peritonitis can be treated conservatively. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of transrectal vacuum treatment on the healing of low colorectal anastomotic leaks. METHODS: Medical records of fourteen patients managed conservatively with transrectal vacuum treatment for anastomotic leakage after rectal resection between September 2015 and September 2018, were retrospectively reviewed. Anastomotic leakage was documented and evaluated with computerised tomography and rectosigmoidoscopy RESULTS: 10 of 14 patients had successful closure of the perianastomotic abscess cavity after a mean of 19 days of vacuum treatment. 2 patients in this group had stricture on the anastomotic site as a late complication which was successfully treated with repeated dilatations. 4 of 14 patients had eventually a permanent sigmoid colostomy. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that transrectal vacuum treatment can be safely used to all stable patients without generalised peritonitis in the management of low colorectal anastomotic leakages.