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The Authors, on the basis of personal experience relative to 71 cases of Autonomous Adenoma of the thyroid treated by surgery or percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI), analyze the results in terms of complications and function. After comparing their results with the data in the literature relative to radioiodine therapy, the Authors conclude that surgery should be the primary treatment for plurifocal nodules or nodules greater than 2 cm in diameter, while PEI can be used for single nodules smaller than 2 cm. The point is that radioiodine often induces hypothyroidism, while our knowledge of the results of percutaneous ethanol injections is still limited in terms of number of cases and length of observation periods. Therefore, the authors think that the treatment of Autonomous Adenomas should be surgical, while non-surgical therapy should be limited to specific cases (dimensions, age, or general contraindications to the operation).