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AIM: The most dreaded complication of thyroidectomy is recurrent laryngeal nerve damage, which is most of the time hardly irreversible. In our experimental study we researched the use of free nerve grafts in the treatment of laryngeal nerve damage in rabbit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were three groups in our study. In the first group, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was severed and then a free nerve graft was interposed between the phrenic nerve and distal end of recurrent laryngeal nerve. In the second group, a defect in the continuity of the laryngeal nerve was created. The two ends of the nerve were joined together later by an interposed free nerve graft. In the third group, only a defect in the recurrent nerve was created without any attempt at uniting the ends together so that these latter subjects could be assigned as control group. In the evaluation process we performed laryngeal endoscopy, laryngeal EMG and histopathologic examination. RESULTS: On the 21. day of trial, in the first and second group vocal cord movements were detected on the laryngoscopy along with regeneration waves on EMG. In the third group there was no vocal cord movements on the side where a neural damage was created intentionally. On EMG there was degeneration waves as opposed to regeneration waves seen in the first and second groups. Histopathologic findings were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrrent laryngeal nerve paralysis is an unwanted complication because it causes permenant sequela. Studies which intend to find a cure for this complication are increasing in number. We aim to find new approaches to cure patients suffering from this devastating complication as well. In our exprerimental study, vocal cord movements were reproduced without causing diaphragmatic paralysis. We believe the results of our study promise to relieve the suffering of patients. The results are encouraging.