The epidemiology and clinical evaluation of abdominal trauma. An analysis of a multidisciplinary Trauma Registry

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COD: 095-102 Categorie: ,

Gianluca Costa, Simone Maria Tierno, Federico Tomassini, Luigi Venturini, Barbara Frezza, Giulio Cancrini, Francesco Stella

Ann. Ital. Chir., 2010; 81: 95-102

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Abdominal trauma is present in 7-10% of all trauma victims, and in cases of severe trauma is often found together
with orthopedic, thoracic or central nervous system (CNS) injuries. The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative
analysis of abdominal trauma and trauma involving other body regions, evaluating the prognostic significance
of abdominal injuries in patients with severe trauma, based on data from a multidisciplinary trauma registry. Data
from the period from March 1 2006 to December 31 2007 was collected from the trauma registry of the University
Hospital Sant’Andrea in Rome, Italy. There were 25.875 patients (31.4%) with the diagnosis of trauma out of a total
of 82.293 patients admitted to the emergency department. Eight hundred forty-four patients were selected according to
specific inclusion criteria and patients with abdominal injuries were further selected. The following data were investigated:
patient age, the trauma mechanism, duration of recovery, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Injury Severity Score
(ISS), type and the incidence of abdominal and extra-abdominal injuries. Morbidity and mortality, especially in patients
with spleen and liver injuries, were analyzed. There were 79 patients (9.3%) with abdominal trauma. Their mean ISS
was 25.7±14.3. Sixty-one (77.2%) of these patients had sustained severe trauma (ISS>15). Forty-one patients (51.8%)
underwent surgery. The overall mortality rate was 24.1%, 19 patients all with ISS>15, so that the mortality rate for
patients with severe trauma was 31.2%. Splenic trauma was the most frequent, and was found in 36 patients (45.6%)
whose mean ISS was 31.1±14.4. Twenty-two patients (61.6%) were treated surgically; a total of 21 splenectomies and
one laparoscopic procedure to control bleeding were performed. Overall mortality among patients with splenic trauma
was 30.5% (11 patients), with an average spleen AIS of 3.3±0.8 (died vs. survived p=n.s.). Liver injuries were found
in 33 patients (41.7%). The mean ISS was 28.4±11.6. Sixty-five percent of the patients were given nonsurgical treatment.
Overall mortality among liver trauma patients was 24.2% (8 patients) with an average liver AIS of 3.2±0.3
(died vs. survived p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, among the general population of trauma patients, the ISS (p<0.001), patient age (p<0.003), and an orthopedic (p<0.002) or CNS injury (p<0.006) proved to be significant independent predictors of the presence of an abdominal injury. Multivariate analysis showed that in patients with abdominal trauma, only the ISS (p<0.001) was a significant independent predictor of mortality

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