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INTRODUCTION: Obstruction of the common bile duct is associated with hepatic paranchymal damage and increased susceptibility to subsequent bacterial infections. Erythropoietin has antiinflammatory and cytoprotective effects and it induces antiinflammatory cytokines and suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Erythropoietin on bacterial translocation, inflammation and tissue damage in rats with obstructive jaundice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were divided into 4 groups as follows: Group 1 (Sham); only hepatoduodenal ligament dissection, Group 2 (Erythropoietin); hepatoduodenal ligament dissection and given 500 IU/kg Erythropoietin subcutaneously, Group 3 (Obstructive jaundice); complete hepatoduodenal ligament ligation, Group 4 (Obstructive jaundice + Erythropoietin); complete hepatoduodenal ligament ligation and given 500 IU/kg Erythropoietin subcutaneously. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed by taking blood from the heart for biochemical analyses. Peritoneal swab culture, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and ileum were collected for microbiological and histopathological examinations. RESULTS: Erythropoietin reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage and bacterial translocation, prevent the formation of inflammatory changes in intestine and liver after obstructive jaundice. Conclusion: The treatment of EPO in rats with OJ reduces bacterial translocation, inflammation and tissue damage.