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Colonoscopic screening has been recommended in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer. In fact this population is believed to have an increased risk in developing colorectal neoplasia. The purpose of this study is to report the impact of colonoscopy in a series of completely asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients operated on for colorectal cancer at our institution. A total of 480 individuals was requested to participate in a screening program based on faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy in those with positive FOBT. Colonoscopy was also suggested to persons with negative FOBT. After the first 195 examined relatives, FOBT was abandoned because of continuously increasing acceptance of colonoscopy.