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INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to investigate the contributions made to thyroid surgery by outstanding Russiansurgeons;’ (Pirogov N.I., Bujalskiy I.V., Velyaminov N.A., Bobrov A.A., Lezhnev N.F., Fyodorov S.P., Opel V.A. andothers) MATERIALS ANDMETHODS: Research was done on thyroid surgery in Russia in the period from the early 19thcenturyto the early 20thcentury and the achievements of Russian surgeons were assessed in relation to progress in the field world-wide, including the difficulties that prevented Russian surgeons from gaining extensive attention at an international lev-el and the steps taken by Russia in the 21stcentury to share expertise in thyroid surgery with other countries. Data was gathered from 178 documents. Books, manuals, and other scientific publications, as well as doctors reportsand patient records were analyzed. Research was done on 15 surgical instruments and 10 photographs.