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AIM: Recto-Urinary Fistula (RUF) is a rare complication of pelvic surgery. Different approaches are reported in literature but a gold standard treatment has not yet been achieved. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) is a miniinvasive approach with well known advantages as magnification, 3D view and lighting of the operative field. Aim of the present review is to report the current evidence in literature about technique and results of RUF treatment by TEM and to suggest some key points for its correct management. MATERIALS OF STUDY: After a medline in Pubmed and Scopus databases, seven papers were eligible for the present study. Data were reviewed on the basis of the cases reported, patient’s characteristics, surgical techniques and results. RESULTS: Eighteen cases have been reported in the literature from 1996 to 2005. The healing success rate was 77.8%. Fecal and urinary diversion were performed before TEM-assisted procedure in the 83% and 94% of cases, respectively. Recurrence was observed in four patients (22%). DISCUSSION: A gold standard treatment of RUF should ensure the complete removal of scar tissue around the fistula, in order to perform a tension free suture on healthy margins with adequate vascularization. Preoperative stoma improves the healing of the fistula, reducing local inflammation and infections. CONCLUSIONS: There is not common view of this topic in literature and clarify which could be the best treatment is a key condition due to high failure rate of the surgical proposed techniques. Recurrences treatment has a lower cure rate if compared to primary lesions, nevertheless more studies are required to confirm this data.