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BACKGROUND DATA: Neonatal primary peritonitis (or autonomic bacterial peritonitis) is a diffuse peritoneal inflammation
without any obvious visceral cause. It is a disease rarely described during the neonatal period.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to make the surgical community aware of it, in an attempt to help a
prompt diagnose and to avoid any unnecessary surgery in patients admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: It concerns the description of 7 cases of newborns affected by primary peritonitis during
their hospitalization in the NICU, underlining their signs and symptoms along with all additional paraclinical tests and
the final outcome.
RESULTS: Primary peritonitis was identified in 7 neonates (5 females and 2 males). Despite the severity of their symptoms
(e.g. abdominal sensibility, a long standing ileus etc.) none of them had sustained any surgery and the mortality
CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal primary peritonitis should always be taken into account in such circumstances. The final outcome,
despite the initial clinical severity, is favorable with the appropriate conservative therapy.