Lower limb veins color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography examination. An examination protocol


COD: 273-280-1 Categorie: ,

Athanasios N. Chalazonitis, Nicolas Condilis, Joannie Tzovara, Nikolaos Ptohis, Fotios Laspas, Ioannis Neofytou, Eleni Feida, Artemisia Tzannetaki

Ann. Ital. Chir., 2008; 79: 273-280

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Lower extremity’s venous pathology was traditionally investigated by intravenous venography. Nowadays Color Doppler flow imaging is widely accepted as a well established, noninvasive method for the evaluation of deep pelvic and lower extremity’s venous system. The vast majority of authors conclude that the method can safely replace diagnostic venography in all patients with venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and valve or communicating veins insufficiency. Optimal performance of Color Doppler flow imaging as a diagnostic tool for the whole lower limb veins requires: – proper equipment specifications and settings – knowledge of regional venous anatomy – established examination protocols – evaluation of morphological and functional findings – documentation of the findings. All these steps are described as a sequence of guidelines, photographs and multiple ultrasonographic images. Our paper can be useful to all physicians or sonographers involved with color Doppler studies for the evaluation of lower limb venous diseases and abnormalities.


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