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Intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a rare event which is usually associated with trauma. Because of the rarity of this problem, there has been little conformity of opinions as to diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The authors report on a case of intramural hematoma of the duodenum post-traumatically occured in a young woman. Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of hematoma of the duodenum are thoroughly examined in the present study. Plain abdominal radiography, oral barium study, ultrasound examination, CT and RNM are diagnostic tools in this disease. It appears that most patients with intramural hematoma of the duodenum would respond well to conservative management; surgery should be reserved for those cases that remain obstructed over seven days or have evidence of peritonitis. However surgery is mandatory in cases of uncertain diagnosis. The evacuation of hematoma is considered the most effective and safest surgical treatment.