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AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of laser lithotripsy in the treatment of renal stones in children in a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patients (n=36) who were treated with laser nephrolithotripsy (LL group) between 2011 and 2014. We compared those results with results of pneumatic nephrolithotripsy in patients (n=32) who were treated from 2007 to 2011 (PL group). The patients were evaluated in respect of gender, age, stone location, stone size, complications and stone-free rate. RESULTS: The duration of anesthesia, the need for retreatment, the mean hospitalization and the occurrence of minor complications (perirenal haematoma, urinoma, minimal ureteral perforation) were significantly lower in LL group (p < 0.05). We found statistically significant difference in stone-free rate between two groups – stone-free rate was significantly higher in LL group (LL: 94.4% vs. PL: 62.5%) (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Analyzing the stone-free rate after lithotripsy and the occurrence of complications, it is shown that the laser lithotripsy is more efficient than pneumatic lithotripsy and that endoscopic procedure proved safer, in terms of complications. Majority of the studies showed different successful rate after laser lithotripsy for stones located in the kidney. In particular cases, there is the need for ureteral orifice dilatation and ureteral stent insertion. CONCLUSIONS: Laser endoscopic lithotripsy is minimally invasive, effective and safe surgical procedure for the treatment of renal stones in children with minimal complication rate. The effectiveness is partially limited to stones in lower pole calices of the kidney.