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The quality of radiotherapy significantly impacts on the results of treatment, in patients with rectal carcinoma, espe – cially in terms of acute and late toxicity. Based on this assumption, the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) formulated a document aimed to define the standards of radiation treatment for rectal carcinomas. Two different levels of standard were described: a first level, considered as “minimal requirement”, and a second level, considered as “optimal treatment”. A retrospective evaluation, based on a questionnaire, revealed that in 1996, in most Italian Centers, patients affected by rectal carcinoma recei – ved radiation treatment within the first level of proposed standards. A subsequent analysis concerned the evaluation of the level of treatments applied in 2000. In this paper the radiotherapy standards proposed by the AIRO are descri – bed in the different phases of the radiation treatment.