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Pain in chronic pancreatitis is supposed to be multifactorial in origin. Pancreatic duct/tissue hypertension is today proved in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pain. Duct drainage reportedly normalizes pancreatic duct/tissue pressure and reduces pain in 70 % of the patients. Also, duct drainage by endoscopy may relieve pain. Surgical duct decompression is parenchyma-preserving and even suggested to prevent further progress of exocrine insufficiency. Recent experience indicates that such operations are pain-relieving not only in patients with dilated ducts but also in those with small duct disease.