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After some preliminary remarks concerning epidemiological data about post-mastectomy lymphedema, on the basis of specific etiologic and pathophysiologic aspects, authors report a modern clinical and instrumental staging of lymphedema and an accurate diagnostic protocol, which allows not only to study lymphedema at late stages, but also to individuate the disease at earliest stages. Protocols of medical, physical and rehabilitative treatment mostly used today are schematically described, and they include proper igienic measures for the prevention bacterial and micotic infections, manual lymph drainage, sequential compression therapy, exercises, thermotherapy, bandages and elastic garments. Authors underline above all the importance of Microsurgery in treating post-mastectomy lymphedema, by means of modern methods of lymphatic microsurgery, derivative or reconstructive (multiple lymphatic-venous anastomoses, lymphaticvenous- lymphatic plasty). The operation of multiple lymphatic- venous anastomoses represent the mostly used technique. The registry consists of 194 microsurgical operations, performed in patients treated and followed-up statistically in the last 15 years, with positive result in over 80% of cases.