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A second thoracotomy in patients who have undergone previous chest surgery can be performed soon or immediately after the first operation and is usually aimed at resolving severe or even life-threatening postoperative complications. Late reoperations, on the other hand, are either performed to resolve complications of previous surgery or to remove second primary lung tumors (SPLCs) or metastases. The most exacting reoperation in this context is completion pneumonectomy, which is particularly indicated in the case of failure of the residual lobe to re-expand after primary surgery; it is also used for – rarely occurring – fistulas of the lobar bronchi and for new ipsilateral primary lung tumors. This type of surgery is technically complicated and has been associated, in our experience and that of others, with a certain mortality.