Gallstone Ileus. What therapeutic options are there?


COD: 06_2022_3723-1 Categorie: ,

Alin Mihai Vasilescu, Eugen Tarcoveanu, Costel Bradea, Cristian Lupascu, Franco Stagniti

Ann Ital Chir, 2022 93, 3: 300-306

La mia nuova descrizione qui!

Price of a print issue €25.00

Gallstone ileus is a rare disorder in emergency surgical practice with diagnosis usually difficult and only achieved at surgery. The current approaches are: enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula repair (one-stage surgery), enterolithotomy with cholecystectomy performed later (two-stage surgery) and only enterolithotomy (most reported surgical procedure).
Methods: The clinical, operative and follow-up data on 14 consecutive patients treated in our clinic for gallstone ileus was retrospectively reviewed. Results: Gallstone ileus was recorded in 0.06% of all operations for biliary lithiasis and 1% of all enteric occlusions. There were 11 women and one men, with a mean age of 77.3 (range 67-100) years.
There was a mean delay of 3.16 days for onset of symptoms to admission. Urgent laparotomy confirmed gallstone obstruction and a cholecysto-duodenal fistula (13 cases) or cholecysto-colonic fistula (1 case). We performed one stage surgery in4 cases, enterolithotomy alone in 8 cases (one case operated initially in another surgical service), Hartman procedure, cholecystectomy and fistula repair in one case and a spontaneous evacuation of the gallstone with cholecystectomy and fistula repair later in another case. We recorded 2 deaths in patients with multiple comorbidities in which only enterolithotomy was performed and with 1 and 2 reinterventions, respectively. Postoperative stay was 9.4 days for cases with simple enterolithotomy and 18.6 days for cases with radical treatment. We did not record any recurrence. Conclusions: Although rarely encountered in surgical practice, gallstones ileus should be noted in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in patients with a past history of biliary disease, occlusive syndrome, pneumobilia and possibly ectopic gallstone. The one-stage procedure should be the offered to stabilized patients, but in cases with associated comorbidities, only enterolithotomy represent a best option.