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Background and aims: Epidemiological studies have shown that ulcerative proctitis represents 25-55% of ulcerative colitis. In western countries, the incidence of ulcerative proctitis has been increased, while the incidence of more extensive colitis remained unchanged. Compared with extensive ulcerative colitis, the idiopathic proctitis seems to be a benign disease, with an extension to proximal segments in less than 30% of cases, low surgical and cancer risk. On the basis of epidemiological studies, not confirmed by endoscopic and histological features, it has been hypothesized that ulcerative colitis and proctitis could represent two different clinical entities. The aim of the study was to evaluate some clinical and demographic features related to the two different localizations, colitis and proctitis, in the attempt to clarify the above mentioned issues.