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AIM: Intrathoracic extension in patients with pseudomixoma peritonei is a rare event, but spread of the tumour beyond
the abdomen in to pleuropulmonary cavity has been reported.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case of a 50-years-old woman with synchronous pleural manifestation of
pseudomixoma peritonei by a mucinous ovarian cancer. During the abdominal cytoreductive surgery an extensive disease
under the right hemidiaphragm was noted, requiring partial diaphragmatic resection. Once the pleural space was entered,
mucinous neoplastic implants on the pleural surface was observed. The diaphragmatic defect was left open during the
hyperthermic chemoperfusion to treat both the pleural and peritoneal surfaces. After a postoperative course uneventful she
died after 6 months for a myocardial infarction, in presence of a left side pleural effusion with a positive cytology for
high-grade malignant cells with a smear background contained wispy mucin.
DISCUSSION: Despite the aggressive spread of the pseudomixoma peritonei within the peritoneal cavity, lymphatic and
hematogenous metastasis are rare. However, extension of disease into pleuropolmonary cavity has been well described as
pleural effusion or pleuropulmonary metastases. This is the first report in literature, to our knowledge, in which the thoracic
extension is due to a mucinous ovarian cancer, and is the second case in which a simultaneous bicavitary hyperthermic
chemoperfusion was done as a management option for thoracic extension of pseudomixoma peritonei.
CONCLUSION: Due to the rarity of the thoracic involvement by pseudomixoma peritonei, its correct treatment is still
unclear. Simultaneous cytoreductive surgery associated to intraoperative intraperitoneal and intrathoracic chemohyperthermia
can be a potential therapeutic option for these patients.