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Our aim is to compare the immune response after colorectal surgery performed laparoscopically and via traditional technique. This response seems to be proportional to the level of the surgical trauma and presumably is directed to improve host defence. This is a prospective reported study based on patients’ randomisation. Fourteen patients with colorectal diseases undergoing laparoscopic or open surgery were enrolled. After both laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery, we observed a significant increase of circulating C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels. The count of lymphocytes subpopulations did not show significant differences after both procedures. IL-6 serum levels increased immediately after laparoscopic approach. IL-6 production was preserved only in the laparoscopic group, while its plasma levels were significantly higher in conventional group. Postoperative cell-mediated immunity was better preserved after laparoscopic than after conventional colorectal resection. Laparoscopy became a popular approach to treat surgically benign and malignant colorectal diseases and several authors reported a better immune response in patients performing laparoscopic surgery after comparing to conventional colorectal surgery. These findings may have important implications in performing a laparoscopic colorectal resection.