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BACKGROUND: Uterine sarcomas are mesenchymal tumors; they are rare, representing less than 2-3% of all uterine malignancies. Among them, we can define four types: leiomyosarcoma (LMS), endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS), Adenosarcoma and Carcinosarcoma. This last type was recently reclassified by FIGO as a Mullerian type of the endometrial adenocarcinoma. Therefore, today only the first three types are histologically considered.
METHODS: In this paper, we reported a case of simultaneous presence of three different rare neoplasms in the same surgical specimen, resulting from a hysterectomy of a premenopausal woman. The woman presented to the ED with a sixmonths history of vaginal bleeding. Given the complexity of the clinical picture, we suggested hospitalization in our Department of Gynecology, to perform appropriate diagnostic tests. Because of the persistent hemorrhage and the absence of required fertility preservation, a laparotomic hysterectomy with bilateral annessiectomy was performed.
RESULTS: The postoperative histology of the specimen described the myoma at the fundus as a leiomyosarcoma. The myoma of the uterine anterior wall appeared as an endometrial stromal sarcoma of low-grade. Moreover, an intramural cavernous hemangioma of 3 cm in diameter was reported at the uterine corpus.
CONCLUSION: All these described pathologies have no specific clinic characteristics; the most common symptom is abnormal uterine bleeding. To date, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are the standards of care in the management of all early stage uterine sarcomas. To our knowledge, cases of LMS, ESS and cavernous haemangioma coexisting in the same patient have not been reported in literature to date. The pathogenesis of this combination remains to be elucidated.